Thread overview
Testing out the new cross-compilation support in ldc master
Aug 18
Joakim
Aug 18
kinke
Aug 19
Joakim
Aug 19
kinke
Aug 27
Joakim
Sep 18
Joakim
August 18
I merged kinke's pull two weeks ago that adds a small D build tool which makes it easy to download and cross-compile the standard libary for other platforms, so you can easily use the official ldc releases for {Mac,Win,Linux}/{x86,x64} as a cross-compiler for newer platforms that ldc is coming to, like Android/ARM or Linux/PPC.  It can also be used for LTO or sanitizer-enabled builds of the standard library, basically anything where you want the stdlib built differently:

https://github.com/ldc-developers/ldc/pull/2253

Right now, it has to be built from the git repo, as the first official release it will ship with is the upcoming ldc 1.4 beta, would be good if more people tried it out and let us know how it's working. Generally speaking, you need all the same dev tools you'd need if you were building from source before, such as git, CMake, Make or Ninja, and a C cross-compiler/linker toolchain for the platform you want to target (needed because of a few C/assembly files in the stdlib).

Specifically, I'm interested in how well it works on Mac and Windows to cross-compile for Android/ARM, as I haven't used Mac/Windows in years and don't have those platforms available.  You can wait till the ldc 1.4 beta is out, but if you're comfortable building ldc master from source, here are some instructions on how to try it.  You will be following the same routine as the first third of this wiki page, except you won't be limited to cross-compiling from linux anymore:

https://wiki.dlang.org/Build_LDC_for_Android

The first three steps are the differences from that wiki page, then instructions on building and using the new tool:

1. All the same prerequisites, except you don't need the Android SDK nor obviously the linux/x64 shell.  See the steps to download the NDK for Windows 10, for a simple way on how to get it.
2. For Android/ARM, you need to compile a lightly tweaked llvm, as shown in the instructions there (with one exception, leave off the default target triple option).  For other targets, like Linux/PPC, a stock llvm is fine.
3. Build ldc and druntime/phobos as you would normally and shown there, except using the master branch and no need to apply those Android patches.
4. Once you've built ldc, druntime and phobos, build kinke's new tool with this command:

make ldc-build-runtime

5. Finally, you use this new tool to cross-compile the standard library and possibly the test runners for your target.  Here's an example from the comments of that PR, for Android/ARM, all one command that I've expanded for legibility:

CC=/home/joakim/ndk-r15c/toolchains/llvm/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/bin/clang

./bin/ldc-build-runtime --ldcSrcDir=/home/joakim/ldc BUILD_SHARED_LIBS=OFF C_SYSTEM_LIBS="m;c"

--cFlags="-gcc-toolchain;/home/joakim/ndk-r15c/toolchains/arm-linux-androideabi-4.9/prebuilt/linux-x86_64;-fpic;-ffunction-sections;-funwind-tables;-fstack-protector-strong;-Wno-invalid-command-line-argument;-Wno-unused-command-line-argument;-no-canonical-prefixes;-fno-integrated-as;-target;armv7-none-linux-androideabi;-march=armv7-a;-mfloat-abi=softfp;-mfpu=vfpv3-d16;-mthumb;-Os;-g;-DNDEBUG;-fomit-frame-pointer;-fno-strict-aliasing;-DANDROID;-Wa,--noexecstack;-Wformat;-Werror=format-security;-isystem;/home/joakim/ndk-r15c/platforms/android-21/arch-arm/usr/include"

--linkerFlags="-Wl,-z,nocopyreloc;--sysroot=/home/joakim/ndk-r15c/platforms/android-21/arch-arm;-lgcc;-gcc-toolchain;/home/joakim/ndk-r15c/toolchains/arm-linux-androideabi-4.9/prebuilt/linux-x86_64;-target;armv7-none-linux-androideabi;-no-canonical-prefixes;-fuse-ld=bfd;-Wl,--fix-cortex-a8;-Wl,--no-undefined;-Wl,-z,noexecstack;-Wl,-z,relro;-Wl,-z,now;-Wl,--warn-shared-textrel;-Wl,--fatal-warnings;-fPIE;-pie"

--dFlags="-w;-mtriple=armv7-none-linux-android" --ninja --testrunners

CC specifies the path to your C cross-compiler, which is assumed to invoke the right linker for your target.  For Android/ARM, replace all uses of /home/joakim/ndk-r15c with the path to your NDK.  I think you have to specify --ldcSrcDir, the path to your ldc source, since you're building from the git repo.  The Android port doesn't support building the stdlib as a shared library yet, so I turn it off.  It also uses a different set of C system libraries, because Android includes pthreads in libc, for example.

The --cFlags and --linkerFlags were taken from running the Android ndk-build script in verbose mode.  Use --dFlags to set the llvm target triple for your platform, as I do here for Android/ARM.  Leave off --ninja if you'd like to use Make instead, same for --testrunners if you don't want to run the stdlib tests.  Run ./ldc-build-runtime -h to see the full list of flags.

Once that builds, assuming all goes well, try downloading druntime-test-runner and phobos2-test-runner to a terminal emulator on your Android/ARM device and running them, if you built the test runners.  Otherwise, you can follow the instructions here to cross-compile a sample D program, though you'll need to add the -mtriple=armv7-none-linux-android flag when calling ldc:

https://wiki.dlang.org/Build_D_for_Android#Build_a_command-line_executable

kinke, will setting CC first work on Windows and other shells?  If not, I guess it will work if passed after the invocation of ldc-build-runtime, like all the other flags.

I'll build a native ldc 1.4 for Android/ARM, to make available with the upcoming official beta release, just as I do now for ldc 1.3 on my own github repo.  Maybe that termux-packages build script can be merged into the official packaging ldc-scripts eventually.

I'd like to make it easier to cross-compile for supported platforms, by being able to pass a target OS and architecture alone to this build tool and CMake, which would call some default C and linker flags in the official CMake config.  You will still be able to override the defaults with custom C/linker flags.  I'll submit a PR for Android/ARM, hopefully we'll have more defaults for Linux/PPC, Linux/armhf, and other more well-tested platforms.  I hope you're not waiting on that PR to push the ldc 1.4 beta out, kinke.
August 18
Thanks for the write-up!

On Friday, 18 August 2017 at 07:34:04 UTC, Joakim wrote:
> Right now, it has to be built from the git repo, as the first official release it will ship with is the upcoming ldc 1.4 beta

Not entirely true; we have CI builds for Windows, which happen to include our tailored (Android-ready) LLVM already. It obviously also includes the ldc-build-runtime tool (which btw is part of the `all` build target, no need to be built manually). So for a quick test on Windows, a recent CI build is already enough, and one only needs the prerequisites (Android NDK, CMake, ninja) and LDC source and can then start with the last step (5).

> kinke, will setting CC first work on Windows and other shells?

Nope, a combined command `CC=... ldc-build-runtime ...` doesn't work in the regular Windows shell. Environment variables need to be set (exported in Posix lingo) explicitly: `set CC=...`, then invoke the tool. That being said, I have no idea whether CMake honors that environment variable on Windows; if it doesn't, one should be able to fall back to `ldc-build-runtime CMAKE_C_COMPILER=... CMAKE_LINKER=... ...`.

> I hope you're not waiting on that PR to push the ldc 1.4 beta out, kinke.

Nope, don't worry ;) - I think we're pretty much ready for 1.4-beta1. DMD has already pushed out a 2.076 beta...
August 19
On Friday, 18 August 2017 at 16:12:25 UTC, kinke wrote:
> Thanks for the write-up!
>
> On Friday, 18 August 2017 at 07:34:04 UTC, Joakim wrote:
>> Right now, it has to be built from the git repo, as the first official release it will ship with is the upcoming ldc 1.4 beta
>
> Not entirely true; we have CI builds for Windows, which happen to include our tailored (Android-ready) LLVM already. It obviously also includes the ldc-build-runtime tool (which btw is part of the `all` build target, no need to be built manually). So for a quick test on Windows, a recent CI build is already enough, and one only needs the prerequisites (Android NDK, CMake, ninja) and LDC source and can then start with the last step (5).

OK, didn't know about those.  Here's the wiki page with more info, if anyone wants to try it out on Windows:

https://wiki.dlang.org/Latest_LDC_binaries_for_Windows
August 19
I created a Wiki page about ldc-build-runtime: https://wiki.dlang.org/Building_LDC_runtime_libraries
August 27
On Friday, 18 August 2017 at 07:34:04 UTC, Joakim wrote:
> I merged kinke's pull two weeks ago that adds a small D build tool which makes it easy to download and cross-compile the standard libary for other platforms, so you can easily use the official ldc releases for {Mac,Win,Linux}/{x86,x64} as a cross-compiler for newer platforms that ldc is coming to, like Android/ARM or Linux/PPC.  It can also be used for LTO or sanitizer-enabled builds of the standard library, basically anything where you want the stdlib built differently:
>
> [...]

Crap, this small patch to omit building core.stdc.tgmath is still needed:

https://gist.github.com/joakim-noah/d74af3cf1355492557a9c56ef1bf2636#file-ldc_1-3_android_arm-L18

I always apply it so forgot about that until I just tried cross-compiling the stdlib for Android/ARM with the new ldc 1.4 beta1.  Also, I wanted to get a small PR in for that and to allow cross-compiling by just specifying the OS and Arch, but I got side-tracked with other stuff and didn't get that done before the beta1 release.

Just add that one line to the runtime CMake config when the build fails, then rerun the ldc-build-runtime command from the wiki page kinke just added and it should work.
August 27
On 27 Aug 2017, at 8:49, Joakim via digitalmars-d-ldc wrote:
> Just add that one line to the runtime CMake config when the build fails, then rerun the ldc-build-runtime command from the wiki page kinke just added and it should work.

Sounds like there should be a beta branch PR for this. ;) —David
September 18
On Friday, 18 August 2017 at 07:34:04 UTC, Joakim wrote:
> 5. Finally, you use this new tool to cross-compile the standard library and possibly the test runners for your target.  Here's an example from the comments of that PR, for Android/ARM, all one command that I've expanded for legibility:
>
> CC=/home/joakim/ndk-r15c/toolchains/llvm/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/bin/clang
>
> ./bin/ldc-build-runtime --ldcSrcDir=/home/joakim/ldc BUILD_SHARED_LIBS=OFF C_SYSTEM_LIBS="m;c"
>
> --cFlags="-gcc-toolchain;/home/joakim/ndk-r15c/toolchains/arm-linux-androideabi-4.9/prebuilt/linux-x86_64;-fpic;-ffunction-sections;-funwind-tables;-fstack-protector-strong;-Wno-invalid-command-line-argument;-Wno-unused-command-line-argument;-no-canonical-prefixes;-fno-integrated-as;-target;armv7-none-linux-androideabi;-march=armv7-a;-mfloat-abi=softfp;-mfpu=vfpv3-d16;-mthumb;-Os;-g;-DNDEBUG;-fomit-frame-pointer;-fno-strict-aliasing;-DANDROID;-Wa,--noexecstack;-Wformat;-Werror=format-security;-isystem;/home/joakim/ndk-r15c/platforms/android-21/arch-arm/usr/include"
>
> --linkerFlags="-Wl,-z,nocopyreloc;--sysroot=/home/joakim/ndk-r15c/platforms/android-21/arch-arm;-lgcc;-gcc-toolchain;/home/joakim/ndk-r15c/toolchains/arm-linux-androideabi-4.9/prebuilt/linux-x86_64;-target;armv7-none-linux-androideabi;-no-canonical-prefixes;-fuse-ld=bfd;-Wl,--fix-cortex-a8;-Wl,--no-undefined;-Wl,-z,noexecstack;-Wl,-z,relro;-Wl,-z,now;-Wl,--warn-shared-textrel;-Wl,--fatal-warnings;-fPIE;-pie"
>
> --dFlags="-w;-mtriple=armv7-none-linux-android" --ninja --testrunners
>
> CC specifies the path to your C cross-compiler, which is assumed to invoke the right linker for your target.  For Android/ARM, replace all uses of /home/joakim/ndk-r15c with the path to your NDK.  I think you have to specify --ldcSrcDir, the path to your ldc source, since you're building from the git repo.  The Android port doesn't support building the stdlib as a shared library yet, so I turn it off.  It also uses a different set of C system libraries, because Android includes pthreads in libc, for example.
>
> The --cFlags and --linkerFlags were taken from running the Android ndk-build script in verbose mode.  Use --dFlags to set the llvm target triple for your platform, as I do here for Android/ARM.  Leave off --ninja if you'd like to use Make instead, same for --testrunners if you don't want to run the stdlib tests.  Run ./ldc-build-runtime -h to see the full list of flags.

I have updated the Android wiki page with full instructions on using the 1.4 release to cross-compile to Android/ARM from linux and Windows PCs:

https://wiki.dlang.org/Build_D_for_Android

The giant ldc-build-runtime command above has been integrated into the CMake config and boiled down to just `ldc-build-runtime --targetPreset=Android-arm`:

https://wiki.dlang.org/Build_D_for_Android#linux

If someone can try cross-compiling from a mac, which I haven't had in almost a decade, by using the Android NDK and either filling in the equivalent commands on the wiki or posting them here, that should complete it.

> Once that builds, assuming all goes well, try downloading druntime-test-runner and phobos2-test-runner to a terminal emulator on your Android/ARM device and running them, if you built the test runners.  Otherwise, you can follow the instructions here to cross-compile a sample D program, though you'll need to add the -mtriple=armv7-none-linux-android flag when calling ldc:
>
> https://wiki.dlang.org/Build_D_for_Android#Build_a_command-line_executable

It's not so simple to build the samples, I've updated that page with all that was needed, including using ldc with -Xcc.

> I'd like to make it easier to cross-compile for supported platforms, by being able to pass a target OS and architecture alone to this build tool and CMake, which would call some default C and linker flags in the official CMake config.  You will still be able to override the defaults with custom C/linker flags.  I'll submit a PR for Android/ARM, hopefully we'll have more defaults for Linux/PPC, Linux/armhf, and other more well-tested platforms.  I hope you're not waiting on that PR to push the ldc 1.4 beta out, kinke.

Let's get cross-compilation presets for other supported platforms in before the 1.5 release:

https://github.com/ldc-developers/ldc/blob/master/runtime/PresetRuntimeConfiguration.cmake

For example, it'd be good to get kinke's linux->Windows cross-compilation config in there, and instructions on setting it up and using it into the ldc-build-runtime wiki page.  The same for Linux/armhf, which I think some have been cross-compiling.