Thread overview
Range checked assignment
Sep 08
Mitacha
September 08
What I would like to do is (in pseudo-code) :

   declare_var my_var : int range 0..7; // i.e. 0 <= val <= 7;

    my_var = 6; // ok
    my_var = 8; // bang ! static assert fail or assert fail at runtime

    my_var = 6;
    my_var += 2; // bang ! value 8 is > 7

So every assignment is range-checked at either compile-time if at all possible or else at runtime. This includes things like += and initialisers of course, not just straight assignment.

I assumed I would have to create a struct type definition and handle various operators. How many will I have to handle? I would of course make it a template so I can reuse this otherwise horribly repetitive code.

September 08
On Tuesday, 8 September 2020 at 14:18:14 UTC, Cecil Ward wrote:
> What I would like to do is (in pseudo-code) :
>
>    declare_var my_var : int range 0..7; // i.e. 0 <= val <= 7;
>
>     my_var = 6; // ok
>     my_var = 8; // bang ! static assert fail or assert fail at runtime
>
>     my_var = 6;
>     my_var += 2; // bang ! value 8 is > 7
>
> So every assignment is range-checked at either compile-time if at all possible or else at runtime. This includes things like += and initialisers of course, not just straight assignment.
>
> I assumed I would have to create a struct type definition and handle various operators. How many will I have to handle? I would of course make it a template so I can reuse this otherwise horribly repetitive code.

I believe you could use Checked (https://dlang.org/library/std/experimental/checkedint.html) with custom hook or roll your own type with appropriate operator overloading(https://dlang.org/spec/operatoroverloading.html).

Code for this won't be that bad, thanks to string mixins. Just mixin("lhs" ~ op ~ "rhs") and Bob's your uncle :).

September 08
On Tuesday, 8 September 2020 at 14:18:14 UTC, Cecil Ward wrote:
> I assumed I would have to create a struct type definition and handle various operators. How many will I have to handle? I would of course make it a template so I can reuse this otherwise horribly repetitive code.

You can see a full list of overloadable operators here:

https://dlang.org/spec/operatoroverloading.html

Most likely you will want to handle all of the binary operators, unary operators, and assignment operators.

For runtime checking, you will probably want to use an invariant, rather than writing individual checks in each member function:

https://dlang.org/spec/contracts.html#Invariants
September 08
On Tuesday, 8 September 2020 at 14:18:14 UTC, Cecil Ward wrote:
> What I would like to do is (in pseudo-code) :
>
>    declare_var my_var : int range 0..7; // i.e. 0 <= val <= 7;
>
>     my_var = 6; // ok
>     my_var = 8; // bang ! static assert fail or assert fail at runtime
>
>     my_var = 6;
>     my_var += 2; // bang ! value 8 is > 7
>
> So every assignment is range-checked at either compile-time if at all possible or else at runtime. This includes things like += and initialisers of course, not just straight assignment.
>
> I assumed I would have to create a struct type definition and handle various operators. How many will I have to handle? I would of course make it a template so I can reuse this otherwise horribly repetitive code.


If you want to define an integral-like type which is more-or-less interchangeable with the native integral types, you'll need to provide the following overloads and members:

	* An enum member named `min` which provides an instance of the lowest possible value of the type.
	* An enum member named `max` which provides an instance of the highest possible value of the type.

	* A constructor.

	* `opAssign`.
	* `opOpAssign` for the operators: `-`; `+`; `/`; `*`; `%`; `^^`; `&`; `|`; `^`; `<<`; `>>`; `>>>`.
	* `opEquals`, which should be a const member function.
	* `opCmp`, which should be a const member function.
	* `opUnary` for the operators: `-`; `+`; `~`, which should be a const member function.
	* `opUnary` for the operators: `--`; `++`, which should be a mutable member function.
	* `opBinary` for the operators: `-`; `+`; `/`; `*`; `%`; `^^`; `&`; `|`; `^`; `<<`; `>>`; `>>>`, which should be a const member function.
	* `opCast`, which should be a const member function.

Although in your specific case, implementing the bitwise operators may not make sense.
Ideally, all the operator overloads, and the constructor, should be able to take any native integral type, and any instances of your type, as arguments.

Here's a skeleton implementation of an integral-like type:


	import std.algorithm;
	import std.traits;

	template isConstrainedInt (Instance)
	{
		enum bool isConstrainedInt = __traits(
			isSame,
			TemplateOf!Instance,
			ConstrainedInt
		);
	}

	template ConstrainedInt (long lower, long upper)
	if (lower <= upper)
	{
		struct ConstrainedInt
		{
			enum typeof(this) min = typeof(this)(lower);
			enum typeof(this) max = typeof(this)(upper);

			this (Integer) (const Integer value)
			if (isIntegral!Integer || isConstrainedInt!Integer)
			{}

			void opAssign (Integer) (const Integer value)
			if (isIntegral!Integer || isConstrainedInt!Integer)
			{}

			void opOpAssign (string operator, Integer) (const Integer value)
			if (
				canFind(
					operator,
					"-", "+", "/", "*", "%", "^^",
					"&", "|", "^",
					"<<", ">>", ">>>"
				)
				&& (isIntegral!Integer || isConstrainedInt!Integer)
			)
			{}

			bool opEquals (Integer) (const Integer value) const
			if (isIntegral!Integer || isConstrainedInt!Integer)
			{}

			int opCmp (Integer) (const Integer value) const
			if (isIntegral!Integer || isConstrainedInt!Integer)
			{}

			typeof(this) opUnary (string operator) () const
			if (
				canFind(
					operator,
					"-", "+",
					"~"
				)
			)
			{}

			typeof(this) opUnary (string operator) ()
			if (canFind(operator, "--", "++"))
			{}

			typeof(this) opBinary (string operator, Integer) (const Integer value) const
			if (
				canFind(
					operator,
					"-", "+", "/", "*", "%", "^^",
					"&", "|", "^",
					"<<", ">>", ">>>"
				)
				&& (isIntegral!Integer || isConstrainedInt!Integer)
			)
			{}

			T opCast (T) () const
			if (isScalarType!T || isConstrainedInt!T)
			{}
		}
	}


September 09
On Tuesday, 8 September 2020 at 16:04:29 UTC, Harry Gillanders wrote:
> On Tuesday, 8 September 2020 at 14:18:14 UTC, Cecil Ward wrote:
>> [...]
>
>
> If you want to define an integral-like type which is more-or-less interchangeable with the native integral types, you'll need to provide the following overloads and members:
>
> [...]

Harry, thank you indeed for your generous help. Much appreciated.